Tsubaki, Camellia japonica

A member of the tea family, Theaceae, Camellia japonica is one of Japan’s most famous flowering trees. Known as tsubaki in Japanese, this plant is a common small tree throughout the warmer regions of the Japanese archipelago. In recent times it has been widely cultivated as a garden plant, but in the not so distant past the oil derived from its bulbous fruits was used as a multipurpose product, serving as a food, a hair and skin treatment, as well as a machine oil.

Camellia japonica tree
Camellia japonica is most commonly seen as a sub canopy tree, but occasionally specimens grow in open, sunny habitats such as this ridge line forest. Homanzan, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan.

Camellia japonica in nature is an evergreen subcanopy tree, commonly 3 to 6 meters tall, with occasional specimens being quite a bit higher than that. The tallest on record is 18 meters (that’s almost 60 feet!). I’ve seen many in the 10-12 meter range with trunk diameters approaching 60 centimeters in really large trees. The bark is an even gray color and very smooth.

The wide, slightly serrated ovate leaves are borne in an alternating pattern and typically measure between 5-10 centimeters long and 3-6 centimeters wide, ending in a pointed tip. They usually are a deep green color on their dorsal surface and a bit lighter underneath. The dorsal surface is also very glossy, adding to the visual appeal of this plant. The soft, new leaves are most actively in growth after flowering in the spring. Flower buds are formed in the fall and over winter until opening in late winter or early spring.

The flower petals of wild plants are typically deep red, though pure white forms have been reported. They are joined at their bases such that when the flower falls off, it is intact (we’ll see why that is important later). The prominent cluster of stamens are a yellow orange color while the three lobed pistal is “lost’ in them. Wild flowering types commonly boast only a handful of broad petals and the blossoms tend to remain rather cupped compared to many of the cultivated varieties. The fruits are nearly perfectly round before opening, starting out apple green and maturing into a purple-red. They open in three sections (called locules), each containing anywhere from 1-2 large brown seeds.

Flowering season in southern Japan starts in winter, usually not before January, peaks around March, and trails off in late April. At higher elevations flowers can persist even into mid May. Flowering is later further north, and can last into mid spring, however, it is not uncommon to see this tree in flower when snow is still falling. This cold weather flowering habit has earned it one common name, rose of winter. Due to the relative lack of insects in winter, the flowers are often pollinated by small birds, in particular the Japanese white-eye, Zosterops japonica.

Camellia japonica flower
The flower of the common wild type of Camellia japonica is much simpler than most cultivated forms, but lovely and elegant.

Tsubaki is a common denizen of the evergreen broad leaf forests of southern Japan and northward even into the warmer coastal reaches of northern Honshu’s Tohoku region. It is absent from Hokkaido (as a native), but is found in virtually all the islands of Japan right down to Okinawa and beyond to Taiwan, as well as parts of mainland China and South Korea. Along with two other Japanese trees, Japanese laurel (Aucuba japonica) and Neolitsea sericea, this plant is a dominate under story tree in these largely evergreen forests, so much so that this forest type is called yabutsubaki kurasu iki (translating as “wild Camellia japonica class region” forest type).

At least two recognized naturally occurring variants exist – one in the north end of its range, and the other in the south. The northern plant is found in a unique habitat for this species – on the Sea of Japan side of the northern part of Honshu in Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) dominated, deciduous forests that experience long, cold winters with heavy snowfall. This variety has been given various names including C. rusticana, C. japonica v. rusticana, C. japonica v. decumbens, and C. japonica subsp. rusticana. In Japanese it is called yukitsubaki, meaning “snow Camellia” – also its common name in English. This plant has proven to be much more cold and snow resistant than more southern varieties. In form it looks much like the common wild type, but is smaller in stature, usually not standing more than 2 meters tall.

Tsubaki trunk
The smooth, gray bark of Camellia japonica is often host to lichens, mosses, and algae, creating a mottled appearance in most wild trees.

The other natural variant is the variety macrocarpa. It has very large fruits, up to three times the size of a typical one. Although each fruit is much larger, the seeds within are not, but they are more numerous. A common variety fruit might contain 2-4 seeds while this variety’s fruit typically has 6 or more seeds in each. Other than that, the tree is nearly indistinguishable from the common type. It is found only in the islands south of mainland Kyushu, from Yakushima to Okinawa. Because of the large fruits the potential for oil production with this variety is high. The large fruits have earned it the nickname “apple Camellia” since the fruits are nearly apple sized.

In my local area C. japonica is a very common forest tree, found from sea level to a 1000 meters elevation. It is most commonly seen in small groups as a under story tree, but occasionally grows on ridge lines in full sun. It seems to reach is greatest stature along water courses in protected valleys – in such places it becomes truly tree sized, up to 10 or more meters high with a trunk as thick around as your thigh. It is a great joy to see a large specimen in full flower on a late winter day.

Camellia japonica is a culturally significant tree in Japan. It has been the focus of a number of rituals and beliefs, as well as an important source of raw materials, most notably Camellia oil. Long before its exportation to Europe, this plant was admired by the Japanese people with the first special varieties having been developed and written about during the Edo Period (1600-1868). At that time it was custom to plant a special camellia on the grave of a departed loved one, however with the advent of the Meiji Period, such traditions were largely lost.

Check out this video of both the wild type and various cultivated forms in Japan:

Camellia japonica fruit
The fruit of Camellia japonica grow in the summer months, eventually turning purple-red in the fall and opening in winter.

As noted above, the flowers of this tree fall intact, such that the ground beneath can become literally covered with their blossoms. This is called ochitsubaki in Japanese, and literally means “fallen tsubaki“. During the Edo Period samurai did not allow tsubaki to be planted at their homes because the common practice in those days was for them to behead outlaws. The fallen Camellia flower represented this act, and a negative attachment was placed on the plant by them. Commoners had no customs about this plant however. Interestingly, this idea has lived on in the custom of it being taboo to visit people in the hospital with neck injuries since the fallen flower represents a severed neck. At another less sinister level, ochitsubaki has been a popular topic for many haiku poets.

Camellia oil (also known as tea oil and tsubaki oil) was the focus of a fairly concentrated industry surrounding this plant for centuries. At it peak in the early 1900s, this tree was planted and the seed collected to extract its precious oil. It has been used in soaps, in hair oil, lubricants and paints, and remarkably is even edible. To this day, sumo wrestlers use it to keep their hair in place, and it is used to fry tempura since it makes the batter more light in texture. It is also used in salad dressings, marinades, and sauces. Traditionally, camellia oil was used to keep swords, axes, and other metal instruments from rusting. It also was formerly used as a light fuel oil.

The wood of tsubaki is valued, but due to the tree’s relatively small size, it is difficult to get boards out of it. Both its charcoal and wood ash have been important historically. In sake brewing, wood ash is needed, and Camellia wood ash is considered the highest quality.

Camellia japonica prefers a moist, acid soil with at least some shading during the hottest part of the day. Having said that, they are quite tolerant of heat stress and sunshine as long as the roots are not subject to doughty conditions. Growth is slow, so don’t expect a forest tree quickly. Luckily, plants flower at small sizes and can be container grown for years, though they do better when planted out. They also respond well to pruning, which can be done anytime during their growth cycle, from late spring until late summer. Avoid pruning in fall to allow the flower buds to form.

Fallen Camellia flowers
The fallen flowers of Camellia japonica are called "ochitsubaki" and are the focus of traditional customs as well as haiku poetry.

Most cultivated forms today are highly selected and bred varieties with multiple petals, blotched and variegated flowers, and so on. Interestingly, the wild form is valued in Japan nearly as much as the fancier varieties and is commonly seen planted in private yards as well as public buildings and parks. The common type is quite cold hardy, growing optimally in USDA zone 8, but withstanding zones 7-10 comfortably. The subspecies (or variety) rusticana is supposed to withstand temperatures down to -15 C (5 F) as well as extended cold periods and snow cover. To ensure the flower buds do not blast in cold winter areas, it is best to afford them some protection from dry winter winds at least.

Camellia japonica is one of Japan’s finer flowering trees. If for no other reason it should be planted for its lovely flowers, but in truth it is a great plant in all respects. It is the perfect subject for a semi-shady courtyard, at a forest edge, or in the shade of tall conifers.


14 Replies to “Tsubaki, Camellia japonica”

  1. Thanks for all this information, I have discovered your website by making some research for my next trip to Japan. Congrats your posts are so interesting!

    I am also the author of a (french) blog about my journey through the fragrances of Asia. Since I am living in Singapore, I have decided to travel all around Asia, in order to discover the Asian fragrances and all the scents and raw materials which are mainly used in perfumery. I warmly invite you to consult my website.

    I am planning to go to Japan next April, and I would love to see these camellias flowers. Do you know any others places than Kyushu and Honshu? I have heard about an island near Tokyo, are you aware about it? Which area would be the best to see the flowers in bloom in April?

    I really look forward to hearing from you.

    Many thanks in advance for your kindly help and your interest.

    Kind regards,

    1. Hi Christa! I’m not well acquainted with Tokyo’s gardens, but I know there are some big ones. One that comes to mind is Koishikawa Botanical Garden maintained by the University of Tokyo. It will no doubt have lots of camellia in flower. There should still be ones in flower in April that far north. Sorry, I don’t know what island you are talking about near Tokyo. If you can’t see any in flower in the city, I recommend finding a low mountain area (no more than 500 meters high) to look for them. They grow well in a variety of habitats, so finding a wild one shouldn’t be difficult. They like broad leaf evergreen forests.

      Enjoy your trip!


  2. Hi Tom,

    Many thanks for your prompt reply. I will have a look at this Botanic Garden then. It seems perfect, thanks a lot!
    Do you know also if I will be able to see hinoki and japanese cedar there? I would love to discover these woods too and from what I know the woods plantations are only located in the south of the country?

  3. Hi All,

    Kesennuma Oshima, Miyagi Prefecture.

    Here they grow what could possibly a species of the “snow Camellia” given its northern location. They produce pure Camellia oil on the island. Google “OshimaTsubaki”

    1. Hey Ryan,

      You may be correct that the local plants are the snow camellia, but in truth the normal form of C. japonica can be found at lower elevations throughout Honshu, but not farther north. The snow camellia seems to be either a closely related species or perhaps a variety of C. japonica adapted to higher elevations on the Sea of Japan side of the country. They typically grow in the beech and oak forests there and are subject to heavy snow, which no doubt also protects them from the cold. They can be found as far south as Shiga Prefecture, all the way up to Akita Prefecture – right in the heart of Japan’s famous “snow country”. One adaptation is that the leaf petioles are much shorter than in C. japonica.

      I my area there is a mountain called aburayama (oil mountain), so named for camellia oil production in times past. There even is a shrine there, protecting the trees. As far as I know, no oil is produced there anymore.

      So how long have you been in Miyagi? Were you there during the tsunami?


  4. Hello,
    thank you for your very interesting article about camellias in japan.
    I’m a french artist. I will travel across Japan and Asia during the next 2-3 years to discover, sketch and paint wild camellias in their natural ecosystems (camellias and other plants and every kind of animals who live on and around the camellias).

    I would like also to sketch people harvesting camellia fruits and people producing camellia oil in Oshima and Toshima islands.
    Could you tell me what is the best period to watch people harvesting fruits of camellias in these islands? (end of august, september, october?)

    Best regards
    Denis Clavreul

    1. Denis, I cannot answer your question directly, but it seems that fall would be the best time to witness camellia fruit harvest. Without a doubt that is the period that the fruit is fully ripe. Your journey sounds like great. Have a great time! Tom

  5. Thank you very much for your answer. What do you mean by “fall” ? (my english is not very good…).
    Do you mean september, more than later in automn?

    I will try to contact some people on Oshima or Oshima islands before booking my flight.

    Best regards

  6. Hi,

    I am a Japanese woman. I learned about ochitsubaki from your article.

    They usually harvest tsubaki fruit in early September in Oshima.

    1. Hi Tomoe! It is always interesting to get a comment from a native Japanese person. Thanks for the information about harvest times in Oshima. Tom

    1. There are many herbaceous plants that grow in forests near C. japonica since it is found at almost all elevations here in southern Japan, and in almost any forest type. This is a very common tree species in Kyushu. In the north end of its range it probably is restricted to lower elevations and sympatric species would be decidedly more temperate in origin. If you can be more specific I may be able to tell you more.

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